Although Stanislaus’ marriage records and US census records place his birthday anywhere from February 1874 to 1876, I lean toward believing the record where he directly gave his birthdate of November 24, 1875 – the World War I draft registration.
From his 1896 marriage record to the 1918 draft registration, Stanislaus’ place of birth is listed as “Austria” or “Polish Austria”. I’ve been wondering what that is all about — what is “Polish Austria” anyway? I got a couple of clues from his wife, Johanna. In 1908, she and the children were on a ship’s passenger list for a trip back from “Galicy” (or Galicia). Since Johanna had been listed as being from Polish Austria as well, I suspect that she and Stanislaus were likely from the same region. Galicia was an area in the northern part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until about 1918, which marked the end of World War I. After the war, Poland itself gained that territory. However from February 1919 to March 1921, Poland was at war with the new Soviet Union, and its borders changed dramatically throughout that war. This explains Stanislaus’ 1920 census country of origin being “Russian Poland”. Later censuses simply indicate “Poland”.
Pinpointing the exact town Stanislaus was from, though, is another matter. I have not yet been able to find a ship’s passenger list with his name on it (having infinite name spellings and combinations is not help). I know that eventually, I will have to get my hands on his naturalization records, which should be dated between 1910 and 1918. (This is discounting the 1920 census saying that he is an “alien” with an immigration date of 1908. That is obviously not true, considering all the other records I’ve found.) Action item: find out whether local courts and/or NARA have the paperwork.
As far as Stanislaus’ parents’ names go, the only thing I have is the 1896 register of marriages in Holyoke, Hampden County, MA. It states that his parents were John Markoski and Marie Pytel; I suspect that at least the first names are Americanized. ( Stanislaus’ wife Johanna’s mother’s name is also listed as Marie (Tenera) – so could the city clerk have entered both mothers’ names as Marie by mistake? I later confirmed that Johanna’s mother’s name was Marya, which could easily be Americanized as Marie.) Where else could I find his parents’ names? Recently, I wondered if he had any siblings in the Holyoke area. According to city directories and censuses, there are other Markoskis (or similarly spelled surnames) in Holyoke, So I tried looking up marriage records for them in Holyoke. There are two really close matches: Andzej and Aniela, both of whom have parent names of John Markocki and Helena Pytel. However, this really doesn’t prove anything yet. It is an avenue worth exploring, though.
According to the 1900 Census, Stanislaus immigrated to this country in 1893. (The 1910 and 1930 Census say 1894.) Where did he first step foot in America? My strongest suspicion is Ellis Island. First, it was the largest port on the East Coast. There was also easy access to Holyoke via the railroad. Finally, when Johanna visited her mother in 1908, she sailed back to the US to Ellis Island. It’s also possible that he arrived in Boston and took a train out to Holyoke. Another reason to obtain those naturalization records!
So what brought Stanislaus to Holyoke anyway? I know that Holyoke had a burgeoning Polish population in the 1890s as the paper and textile mill industries grew there. Maybe, like so many others, Stanislaus had a friend or relative who let him know about the possible job opportunities. I don’t know what conditions were like in Galicia at the time (this is when being on “Genealogy Roadshow” would come in handy!), but this is the time period when people began immigrating to the US in droves. Stanislaus was just one of millions.
Next time, we’ll start to take a look at Stanislaus’ life in Holyoke.